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At the end of 80-ies of the 20th century in Georgia on the background of sharp activation of national movement for independence, Kremlin (Moscow) interferes by mobilizing and manipulating with the separatists, anti-Georgian nationalists in Abkhazia thus to maintain powerful influence upon Georgia. At this time the following actions are carried out which are founding aggressive separatism in Abkhazia:

  • November, 1988 – was founded Abkhazian national forum “Aidgilara”, which was characterized with extremely anti-Georgian intentions.
  • March 18, 1989 – initiated by “Aidgilara” the so called “Likhny Appeal” was adopted, insisting on separation from Georgia by it.
  • July, 1989 – the so called “Likhny Appeal” caused a tragedy in Sokhumi after the separatists attacked the students and lecturers of Ivane Javakhishvili University branch.
  • 1989 – in Abkhazia started the preliminary period for future ethnic cleansing. The “Confederation of Caucasian peoples’ ” founded by assistance of the Soviet KGB declared Abkhazia as its part and Sokhumi as a capital of the confederation.
  • December, 1990 – V.Ardzinba, the leader of “Soyuz” faction was elected as a chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhazian ASSR, who was well known for his anti-Georgian position.

May 26, 1991 after Georgia’s declaration of restoration its independence, Russia continues its destructing policy in Abkhazia for creating tensed and ‘explosive’ situation in this Georgian region. Such policy was aimed for maintaining Russian influence in Georgia. In spite of the fact that the ethnic Abkhaz population consisted only 17% and Georgians – 46%, the later were merely represented in Abkhazian Governmental structures.

  • October, 1991 – the 65 mandates of the Deputies of the Abkhazian Supreme Soviet were distributed as like: 28 – ethnic Abkhazs (separatists, mainly under Kremlin policy influence); 26-Georgians and 11- representatives of other nationalities.
  • October, 1991 – first half of 1992 – by majority of separatist Deputies Abkhazian Supreme Soviet adopts several anti-constitutional acts; like setting up the “Guards”.
  • July 25, 1992 – Georgian State Council declared as unlawful 20 acts adopted by Abkhazian Supreme Soviet.
  • First half of 1992 – for security purposes there was created sub-marginal situation in Abkhazia concerning transport/communication systems.





 Military conflict chronology of 1992-1993

August 14, 1992:

  • In order to secure communicational infrastructure in Abkhazia in coordination with the Government of Abkhazia the limited quantity of MIA (Ministry of Internal Affairs) and army troops moved to Abkhazian territory.
  • Separatist’s gang-formations opened fire to Georgian units. First battle took place at Ochamchire and Gulripshi regions.
  • In order to avoid bloodshed Georgian military units camped in the outskirts of Sokhumi.
  • On the basis of V.Ardzinba’s personal decision separatist Abkhazian Supreme Soviet Presidium declared mobilization and armed Abkhazian separatists occupied the strategic facilities in Sokhumi.
  • Thus the military activities of 1992-1993 started.

August 15, 1992:

  • The separatists didn’t sign previously agreed document according to which the joined Abkhazian – Georgian military unit of 200 – 200 men should defend transport communications from the river Psou up to Samegrelo.

August 18, 1992:

  • V.Ardzinba’s separatist government left Sokhumi.
  • Georgian armed units entered Sokhumi.
  • The Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, established in assistance of Russian intelligence, decided to send “boeviks” /gun-men/ to Abkhazia.

August 19, 1992:

  • The separatists left Gagra and Georgian armed units camped there.

September 3, 1992:

  • By Russian mediation an agreement on cease-fire and separation of the forces was signed in Moscow, Russia.

September 5-30, 1992:

  • Georgian side fulfilled the agreement and withdrew its armed units from Gagra zone.

October, 1992:

  • The separatist’s units broke the agreement and together with the Confederationof Mountain Peoples of theCaucasus “boeviks” /gun-men/, supported by Russian military units and navy seized Gagra.

November, 1992 – may, 1993:

  • Supported by Russian military resources Abkhazian separatists keep control over Gagra and Tkvarcheli cities and Gudauta region.
  • Supported by the Russian special armed forces Abkhazian separatists and “boevik” mercenaries regularly attacked other Abkhazian regions.
  • On April 1, 1993 the Parliament of Georgia adopted a resolution in which it accused Russia for the first time supporting the policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide in Abkhazia. The appropriate appeal was sent to the UNO and other international organizations, evaluating Russian activities as an aggression with purpose of violation of Georgian territorial integrity and sovereignty.

July 27, 1993:

  • In Sochi, brokered by Russians the “Agreement on cease-fire in Abkhazia and On a mechanism to ensure its observance” was signed.

August 1-20, 1993:

  • Georgian side completely fulfilled the agreement: left only two monitoring points at the Gumista River; started to dismantle the armed battalions; withdrew heavy techniques to Poty.

September 1-15, 1993:

  • IDPs are massively returning to Abkhazia especially to Sokhumi. Educational year is beginning. Rehabilitation works are under way.

September 16, 1993:

  • The separatist had broken the Sochi agreement and with Russian military units’ support started a heavy offensive on practically unarmed Sokhumi. Mainly the peaceful Sokhumi population was under attack.

September 27, 1993:

  • After heavy attack of Russian armed forces, Caucasus Confederation “boeviks” mercenaries and Abkhaz separatist Sokhumi felt.

September 30, 1993:

  • With the support of Russian military resources and mercenaries’ units the separatists managed to occupy the whole Abkhazian territory.

September 27 – October, 1993 :

  • Massive killings of peaceful population started;
  • Almost all Georgian population left Abkhazia; more than 350 thousands were forced to leave native country and became IDPs in own motherland.
  • The ethnic cleansing of Georgian population was done, that was confirmed by the resolutions adopted at the summits of OSCE at Budapest 1994, Lisbon, 1996 and Istanbul, 1996.

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